Contoh soal perhitungan akuntansi biaya

Nama   : Dian Febriyanto Putra

Npm      : 21210956

SMAK04

Bab 1 Introduction to Cost Accounting

Cost of goods sold—merchandiser

The following data were taken from the general ledger of Thornton Merchandisers on January 31, the end of the first month of operations in the current fiscal year:

Merchandise inventory, January 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 22,000

Purchases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183,000

Merchandise inventory, January 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,000

Compute the cost of goods sold for the month of January.

Answer  :

Merchandise inventory, January 1                                                                                           $22,000

Purchases                                                                                                                                           183,000

Merchandise available for sale                                                                                                   205,000

Merchandise inventory, January 31                                                                                         (17,000)

Cost of goods sold                                                                                       $188,000

 

Bab 2 Accounting for materials

Economic order quantity; order cost; carrying cost

Teddys  Company predicts that it will use 200,000 lb of material during the year. Dennis anticipates that it will cost $25 to place each order. The annual carrying cost per lb is $10.

1. Determine the most economical order quantity, using the EOQ formula. ______

2. Determine the total annual order and carrying cost at this level. _________

ANSWER:

  1. EOQ=

=

=  = 1.000 lb

  1. Ordering cost     = 200,000 lb/1,000 lb per order = 200 orders

= 200 orders X $25 per order

= $5,000

Carrying Cost = 1,000 lb/2 = 500 lb average inventory

= 500 lb X  $10

= $5,000

 

Bab 3 Accounting for labor

Payment and Distribution of Payroll

Bronx Company

The general ledger of the Bronx Company showed the following credit balances on March 15:

FICA Tax Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,550

Employees Income Tax Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 975

FUTA Tax Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

State Unemployment Tax Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380

Direct labor earnings amounted to $5,100, and indirect labor was $3,400 for the period from March 16 to March 31. The sales and administrative salaries for the same period amounted to $1,500. Use the following tax rates and bases for this problem:

  • FICA: 8% on the first $100,000.
  • State unemployment: 4% on the first $8,000.
  • FUTA: 1% on the first $8,000.
  • Federal income tax: 10% of each employee’s gross earnings

Required:

1. Prepare the journal entries for the following:

a. Recording the payroll.

b. Paying the payroll.

c. Recording the employer’s payroll tax liability.

d. Distributing the payroll for March 16 to 31.

2. Prepare the journal entries to record the payment of the amounts due for the month for FICA and income tax withholdings.

Answer:

a)      Payroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10,000

FICA Tax Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800

Employees Income Tax Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,000

Wages Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8,200

b)      Wages Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,200

Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,200

c)       Factory Overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,105*

Payroll Tax Expense (Sales and Administrative Salaries) . . . .          195**

FICA Tax Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       800

Federal Unemployment Tax Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          100

State Unemployment Tax Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          400

*[0.08 ($5,100 + $3,400) + 0.01 ($8,500) + 0.04 ($8,500)]

**[0.08 ($1,500) + 0.01 ($1,500) + 0.04 ($1,500)]

d)      Work in Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,100

Factory Overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3,400

Sales and Administrative Salaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1,500

Payroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     10,000

2. FICA Tax Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,150*

Employees Income Tax Payable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1,975**

Cash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,125

*$1,550 + $800 + $800

**$975 + $1,000

Bab 4 Accounting for Factory Overhead

Computing under- and overapplied overhead

ETA Company had a remaining credit balance of $20,000 in its under- and overapplied factory overhead account at year-end. The balance was deemed to be large and, therefore, should be closed to Work in Process, Finished Goods, and Cost of Goods Sold. The year-end balances of these accounts, before adjustment, showed the following:

Work in Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 75,000

Finished Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,000

Cost of Goods Sold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100,000

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $200,000

a. Determine the prorated amount of the overapplied factory overhead that is chargeable to each of the accounts.

b. Prepare the journal entry to close the credit balance in Under- and Overapplied Factory Overhead.

ANSWER:

Percent of total

Work in Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 75,000                          37,5%

Finished Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     25,000                          12,5%

Cost of Goods Sold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   100,000                          50%

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  $200,000                         100%

  1. The prorated amount of the $20,000 overapplied factory overhead that would be added to each account is computed as follows:

Work in Process                                ($20,000 x 37,5 %). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $7,500

Finished Good                   ($20,000 x 12,5 %). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2,500

Cost of Goods Sold          ($20,000 x 50 %). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,000

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20,000

  1. the journal entry to close the credit balance in Under- and Overapplied Factory Overhead:

Work in Process                . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                $7,500

Finished Good. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                2,500

Cost of Goods Sold. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 10,000

Under- and Overapplied Factory Overhead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20,000

Bab 5 Process Cost Accounting-General procedures

Computing unit cost

During the month, a company with no departmentalization incurred costs of $45,000 for materials, $36,000 for labor, and $22,500 for factory overhead. There were no units in process at the beginning or at the end of the month, and 20,000 units were completed. Determine the unit cost for the month for materials, labor, and factory overhead.

Answer:

Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  $45,000 : 20,000 units = $2,25

Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36,000 : 20,000 units = $1,18

Factory overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22,500 : 20,000 units = $1,12

Total unit cost of production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   = $4,55

 

Bab 6  Process Cost Accounting-Additional Procedures; Accounting fo Joint products and By-products

Computing average unit costs

Foamy, Inc., manufactures shaving cream and uses an average cost system. In November, production is 14,800 equivalent units for materials and 13,300 units for labor and overhead. During the month, materials, labor, and overhead costs were as follows:

Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $73,000

Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68,134

Overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77,200

Beginning work in process for November had a cost of $11,360 for materials, $11,666 for labor, and $9,250 for overhead.

Compute the following:

a. Average cost per unit for materials

b. Average cost per unit for labor

c. Average cost per unit for overhead

d. Total unit cost for the month

Answer:

  1. Average cost per unit for materials:         ($11,360 + $73,000) : 14,800 units = $ 5,7
  2. Average cost per unit for labor:                                 ($11,666 + $68,134) : 13,300 units = $ 6
  3. Average cost per unit for overhead:        ($9,250   + $77,200) : 13,300 units = $ 6,5
  4. Total unit cost for the month: $5,7 +$6 +$6,5= $18,2

Bab 7 The Master Budget and Flexible Budgeting

Preparing production budget and direct labor budget

S. Prosser Manufacturing Company forecast October sales to be 45,000 units. Additional information follows:

Finished goods inventory, October 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               5,000 units

Finished goods inventory desired, October 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 4,000 units

Direct labor hours required in production:

Department                                                       Hours per Unit

Cutting                                                                 0.25

Assembly                                                              0.50

Direct laborers earn: Cutting, $14 per hour; Assembly, $12 per hour.

Prepare the following:

a. A production budget for October.

b. A direct labor budget for October.

Answer:

  1. A production budget for October:

Units to be sold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              45,000

Ending inventory required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                4,000

Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               49,000

Beginning inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              (5,000)

Units to be manufactured . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              44,000

Units per month (44,000/12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  3,667

  1. A direct labor budget for October:

Department                                                       Hours per Unit

Cutting                                                                 0.25 @ $14 per hour =   $3,5

Assembly                                                              0.50 @$12 per hour  =   $6

Total Direct labor Cost                                  $9,5       

 

Bab 8 Standard Cost accounting-Matreials, Labor, and Factory Overhead

Computing materials variances

D-List Calendar Company specializes in manufacturing calendars that depict obscure comedians. The company uses a standard cost system to control its costs. During one month of operations, the direct materials costs and the quantities of paper used showed the following:

Actual purchase price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          $0.175 per page

Standard quantity allowed for production . . . . . .              170,000 pages

Actual quantity purchased during month . . . . . . .              200,000 pages

Actual quantity used during month . . . . . . . . . . . .              185,000 pages

Standard price per page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            $0.17 per page

Calculate the following variances:

1. Materials price variance

2. Materials quantity variance

3. Net materials variance

Answer:

1. Materials price variance:

=(Actual unit price of materials – standard unit price of materials) x  actual quantity of materials used

= ($0.175 per page – $0.17 per page) x  185,000 pages

= $925 F

2. Materials quantity variance:

= (Actual quantity of materials used – standard quantity of materials allowed)  x standard unit price of  material

= (185,000 pages –  170,000 pages) x $0.17 per page

= $2,550 U

3. Net materials variance:

= Materials price varianceMaterials quantity variance

= $925 F – $2,550 U

= $ 1,625 U

Bab 9 Cost Accounting for Service Businesses and The Balanced Scorecard

Computing activity-based costing rates

The partners of Harris and Whelan, attorneys-at-law, decide to implement an activity-based costing system for their firm. They identify the following three cost pools and budgeted amounts for each for the coming year: fringe benefits, $450,000; paralegal support, $250,000; and research support, $650,000. It is determined that the best cost driver for fringe benefits is professional labor dollars ($1,500,000); paralegal support is partner labor hours (4,000); and research support is professional labor hours (20,000).

Compute the budgeted overhead rates for each of the three cost pools.

Answer:

Cost Pool

Budgeted Rate

Number of Cost Drivers

Amount

Fringe benefits

$450000/professional labor dollars

$1,500,000

$675,000,000,000

Paralegal support

$250000/partner labor hours

4000 hours

$1,000,000,000

Research support

$650000/professional labor hours

20000 hours

$13,000,000,000

TOTAL

$689,000,000,000

Bab 10 Cost Analysis for Management Decision Making

Differential Analysis

Aero Industries

Marcus Foster, Sales Manager for Aero Industries, has been asked by a potential foreign customer to sell 10,000 units of a certain gear for $10 per unit. Aero normally sells this item for $15 per unit, but it has had some excess manufacturing capacity in recent months. It is anticipated that this would be a one-time-only order from this customer. The product unit cost report for this type gear is as follows:

Direct materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 3.00

Direct labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.50

Variable manufacturing overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        1.25

Fixed manufacturing overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      2.50

Variable selling and administrative expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           1.75

Fixed selling and administrative expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          2.25

Total per unit cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    $ 13.25

Required:

1. From the list of costs in the product cost report, which costs would be relevant to the decision to sell at the special price?

2. What will be the amount of the total relevant cost per unit in regard to this order?

3. What would be the differential income (loss) to Aero Industries if this order were accepted?

Answer :

1. The relevant costs in this case are the ones that will change if the special order is accepted. These include the variable costs which are:

  • Direct materials
  • Direct labor
  • Variable manufacturing overhead
  • Variable selling and administrative expense

2. The additional costs that will be incurred per unit if the special order is accepted are as follows:

Direct materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              $3.00

Direct labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             2.50

Variable mfg. overhead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              1.25

Variable S&A expense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               1.75

Total per unit relevant cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              $8.50

3. To determine the differential profit (loss) to the company if the order is accepted, the differential (additional) revenue from the order must be compared to the differential (additional) costs that will be incurred if the order is accepted. The differential revenue is computed as follows:

10,000 units x $10 per unit = $100,000

The differential costs consist of the $8.50 of variable costs per unit that will be incurred only if the order is accepted:

10,000 units x $8.50 per unit = $85,000

  • To compute the differential income, the differential revenue must be compared to the differential costs:

Differential revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $100,000

Differential costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      85,000

Differential income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   $ 15,000

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